Aspergillus fumigatus is a recognised human pathogen, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The availability of the annotated A. fumigatus genome sequence will significantly accelerate our understanding of this organism. However, limited information is available with respect to the A. fumigatus proteome. Here, both a direct proteomic approach (2D-PAGE and MALDI-MS) and a sub-proteomic strategy involving initial glutathione affinity chromatography have been deployed to identify 54 proteins from A. fumigatus primarily involved in energy metabolism and protein biosynthesis. Furthermore, two novel eukaryotic elongation factor proteins (eEF1B gamma), termed E1fA and B have been identified and phylogenetically confirmed to belong to the eEF1B gamma class of GST-like proteins. One of these proteins (E1fA) has been purified to homogeneity, identified as a monomeric enzyme (molecular mass = 20 kDa; pI = 5.9 and 6.5), and found to exhibit glutathione transferase activity specific activities (mean standard deviation, n = 3) of 3.13 +/- 0.27 and 3.43 +/- 1.0 mu mol/min/mg, using CDNB and ethacrynic acid, respectively. Overall, these data highlight the importance of new approaches to dissect the proteome of, and elucidate novel functions within, A. fumigatus. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.