The hippocampus communicates with the neocortex via the entorhinal cortex and is thought to be critically involved in the consolidation of memories. This paper contains in vivo evidence of a projection from the hippocampal area CA1 to the entorhinal cortex. Current theories of memory formation suggest that the backprojections from the hippocampus to the neocortex should undergo some form of plastic change in order that memories become consolidated. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and long-term potentiation (LTP) are forms of short- and long-term plasticity, respectively. We show that the CA1 to entorhinal cortex projection is capable of sustaining PPF over a wide range of stimulus intervals. In addition we demonstrate that following high frequency stimulation of this pathway the evoked response in the entorhinal cortex remains potentiated for at least 30 min. Finally, we demonstrate that PPF changes following LTP depending on the initial ratio of PPF, suggesting that UP expression on this pathway may contain a presynaptic component. These findings should provide insight into the hippocampal function in memory formation. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.