More than 20 species of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema have been described; to date, all reproduce exclusively by cross-fertilization of male and female individuals. Steinernema sp. strain T87 from Indonesia was found to consist largely of self-fertile hermaphrodites. Progeny rr-ere produced bq morphological females both in insects (Galleria mellonella) and in hanging drops of insect haemol)mph inoculated with a single infective juvenile. Sperm were present in the oviduct of unmated morphological females. Approximately 1% of infective juveniles developed into males, and males were also present in the second generation where they constituted 1-6%, of the population. Under the same conditions the related species Steinernema longicaudum strain CB2B displayed typical steinernematid reproduction: cross-fertilization and a 1:1 sex ratio. It is argued that the development of hermaphroditism in Steinernema sp. T87 represents convergent evolution with Heterorhabditis, the other major genus of entomopathogenic nematode.