Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Owens, RA;O'Keeffe, G;Smith, EB;Dolan, SK;Hammel, S;Sheridan, KJ;Fitzpatrick, DA;Keane, TM;Jones, GW;Doyle, S
2015
September
Eukaryotic Cell
Interplay between Gliotoxin Resistance, Secretion, and the Methyl/Methionine Cycle in Aspergillus fumigatus
Published
21 ()
Optional Fields
NONRIBOSOMAL PEPTIDE SYNTHETASE S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE METHIONINE SYNTHASE TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION INFECTION MODEL GENE-CLUSTER BIOSYNTHESIS NIDULANS SULFUR MARKER
14
941
957
Mechanistic studies on gliotoxin biosynthesis and self-protection in Aspergillus fumigatus, both of which require the gliotoxin oxidoreductase GliT, have revealed a rich landscape of highly novel biochemistries, yet key aspects of this complex molecular architecture remain obscure. Here we show that an A. fumigatus Delta gliA strain is completely deficient in gliotoxin secretion but still retains the ability to efflux bisdethiobis(methylthio) gliotoxin (BmGT). This correlates with a significant increase in sensitivity to exogenous gliotoxin because gliotoxin trapped inside the cell leads to (i) activation of the gli cluster, as disabling gli cluster activation, via gliZ deletion, attenuates the sensitivity of an A. fumigatus Delta gliT strain to gliotoxin, thus implicating cluster activation as a factor in gliotoxin sensitivity, and (ii) increased methylation activity due to excess substrate (dithiol gliotoxin) for the gliotoxin bis-thiomethyltransferase GtmA. Intracellular dithiol gliotoxin is oxidized by GliT and subsequently effluxed by GliA. In the absence of GliA, gliotoxin persists in the cell and is converted to BmGT, with levels significantly higher than those in the wild type. Similarly, in the Delta gliT strain, gliotoxin oxidation is impeded, and methylation occurs unchecked, leading to significant S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) depletion and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) overproduction. This in turn significantly contributes to the observed hypersensitivity of gliT-deficient A. fumigatus to gliotoxin. Our observations reveal a key role for GliT in preventing dysregulation of the methyl/methionine cycle to control intracellular SAM and SAH homeostasis during gliotoxin biosynthesis and exposure. Moreover, we reveal attenuated GliT abundance in the A. fumigatus Delta gliK strain, but not the Delta gliG strain, following exposure to gliotoxin, correlating with relative sensitivities. Overall, we illuminate new systems interactions that have evolved in gliotoxin-producing, compared to gliotoxin-naive, fungi to facilitate their cellular presence.
WASHINGTON
1535-9778
10.1128/EC.00055-15
Grant Details