Tumour necrosis factor-Î± (TNF) can activate NF-ÎºB to induce pro-inflammatory genes but can also stimulate the caspase cascade to promote apoptosis. Here we show that deficiency of the ubiquitin E3 ligase, Pellino3, sensitizes cells to TNF-induced apoptosis without inhibiting the NF-ÎºB pathway. Suppressed expression of Pellino3 leads to enhanced formation of the death-induced signalling complex, complex II, in response to TNF. We show that Pellino3 targets RIP1, in a TNF-dependent manner, to inhibit TNF-induced complex II formation and caspase 8-mediated cleavage of RIP1 in response to TNF/cycloheximide co-stimulation. Pellino3-deficient mice also show increased sensitivity to TNF-induced apoptosis and greatly increased lethality in response to TNF administration. These findings define Pellino3 as a novel regulator of TNF signalling and an important determining factor in dictating whether TNF induces cell survival or death.