Parvovirus B19 is a single-stranded DNA virus which causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients and foetal loss in pregnant women. It is classified as an Erythrovirus and this genus also comprises two related viral genotypes (so-called LaLi/A6 (genotype 2) and V9 (genotype 3)) which appear to be immunologically indistinguishable from Parvovirus B19. Serological and nucleic acid test (NAT) systems to detect Parvovirus B19-mediated infection are commercially available; however, some NAT systems are genotype-specific. International standard preparations of Parvovirus B19 IgG and DNA have been produced for assay standardisation purposes, and to ensure consistency of assay manufacture and performance. Immunological assays, such as B-cell ELISpot, T-cell stimulation, and cytokine detection can also be used to confirm exposure to Parvovirus B19. Immunohistochemical techniques, employing commercially available monoclonal antibodies, are used to localise the virus in infected tissue and Parvovirus B19 viral antigen can also be detected in serum and plasma using antigen-specific ELISA. NAT systems have also been described to detect newly identified parvoviruses such as human bocavirus (HBoV), PARV4, and PARV5, although absolute confirmation of clinical diseases associated with these agents is required. This chapter describes the current status of detection systems for all the aforementioned parvoviruses, with particular emphasis on Erythrovirus detection by serological, NAT, and immunological approaches.