The High Frequency Instrument of the Planck satellite is dedicated to the measurement of the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Its main goal is to map the CMB with a sensitivity of Î”T/T=2.10-6 and an angular resolution of 5 arcmin in order to constrain cosmological parameters. Planck is a project of the European Space Agency based on a wide international collaboration, including United States and Canadian laboratories. The architecture of the satellite is driven by the thermal requirements resulting from the search for low photon noise. Especially, the passively cooled telescope should be at less than 50K, while a cascade of cryo-coolers will ensure the cooling of the HFI bolometers down to 0.1K. This last temperature will be produced by a gravity insensitive 3He/4He dilution cooler. This will be achieved at the L2 Lagrangian point of the Sun-Earth system. The whole sky will be observed two times in the 14 months mission with a scanning strategy based on a 1RPM rotation of the satellite. In addition to the cosmological parameters that can be derived from the CMB maps, Planck will deliver nine high sensitivity submillimeter maps of the whole sky that will constitute unique data available to the whole astronomical community.