Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is important for correct lung morphogenesis, and there is evidence of BMP signaling reactivation in lung diseases. However, little is known about BMP signaling patterns in healthy airway homeostasis and inflammatory airway disease and during epithelial repair. In this study, a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model of allergic airway disease was used to investigate BMP signaling throughout the airways in health, disease, and regeneration. Stereologic quantification of immunofluorescent images was used to determine the expression of BMP receptor (BMPR) Ia and phosphorylated SMAD (pSMAD) 1/5/8 in the airway epithelium. A pSMAD 1/5/8 expression gradient was found along the airways of healthy juvenile rhesus macaques (n = 3, P < 0.005). Membrane-localized BMPRIa expression was also present in the epithelium of the healthy animals. After exposure to house dust mite allergen and ozone, significant down-regulation of nuclear pSMAD 1/5/8 occurs in the epithelium. When the animals were provided with a recovery period in filtered air, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, pSMAD 1/5/8, and membrane-localized BMPRIa expression were significantly increased in the epithelium of conducting airways (P < 0.005). Furthermore, in the asthmatic airways, altered BMPRIa localization was evident. Because of the elevated eosinophil presence in these airways, we investigated the effect of eosinophil-derived proteins on BMPRIa trafficking in epithelial cells. Eosinophil-derived proteins (eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase, and major basic protein) induced transient nuclear translocation of membrane-bound BMPRIa. This work mapping SMAD signaling in the airways of nonhuman primates highlights a potential mechanistic relationship between inflammatory mediators and BMP signaling and provides evidence that basal expression of the BMP signaling pathway may be important for maintaining healthy airways.