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Smeed D.;Josey S.;Beaulieu C.;Johns W.;Moat B.;Frajka-Williams E.;Rayner D.;Meinen C.;Baringer M.;Bryden H.;McCarthy G.
Geophysical Research Letteres
The North Atlantic Ocean Is in a State of Reduced Overturning
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AMOC Atlantic circulation overturning
©2018. The Authors. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is responsible for a variable and climatically important northward transport of heat. Using data from an array of instruments that span the Atlantic at 26°N, we show that the AMOC has been in a state of reduced overturning since 2008 as compared to 2004–2008. This change of AMOC state is concurrent with other changes in the North Atlantic such as a northward shift and broadening of the Gulf Stream and altered patterns of heat content and sea surface temperature. These changes resemble the response to a declining AMOC predicted by coupled climate models. Concurrent changes in air-sea fluxes close to the western boundary reveal that the changes in ocean heat transport and sea surface temperature have altered the pattern of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange over the North Atlantic. These results provide strong observational evidence that the AMOC is a major factor in decadal-scale variability of North Atlantic climate.
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