Conference Publication Details
Mandatory Fields
Barton S.;Kerr L.;Domijan K.;Hennelly B.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
On the effect of experimental noise on the classification of biological samples using Raman micro-spectroscopy
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Optional Fields
Classification LDA Noise PCA Raman
© 2016 SPIE. Raman micro-spectroscopy is an optoelectronic technique that can be used to evaluate the chemical composition of biological samples and has been shown to be a powerful diagnostic tool for the investigation of various cancer related diseases including bladder, breast, and cervical cancer. Raman scattering is an inherently weak process with approximately 1 in 107 photons undergoing scattering and for this reason, noise from the recording system can have a significant impact on the quality of the signal, and its suitability for diagnostic classification. The main sources of noise in the recorded signal are shot noise, CCD dark current, and CCD readout noise. Shot noise results from the low signal photon count while dark current results from thermally generated electrons in the semiconductor pixels. Both of these noise sources are time dependent; readout noise is time independent but is inherent in each individual recording and results in the fundamental limit of measurement, arising from the internal electronics of the camera. In this paper, each of the aforementioned noise sources are analysed in isolation, and used to experimentally validate a mathematical model. This model is then used to simulate spectra that might be acquired under various experimental conditions including the use of different cameras, different source wavelength, and power etc. Simulated noisy datasets of T24 and RT112 cell line spectra are generated based on true cell Raman spectrum irradiance values (recorded using very long exposure times) and the addition of simulated noise. These datasets are then input to multivariate classification using Principal Components Analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis. This method enables an investigation into the effect of noise on the sensitivity and specificity of Raman based classification under various experimental conditions and using different equipment.
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