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Castro T.;Moral R.;Demétrio C.;Delalibera I.;Klingen I.
Prediction of sporulation and germination by the spider mite pathogenic fungus neozygites floridana (Neozygitomycetes: Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae) based on temperature, humidity and time
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Abiotic factors Decision Support System (DSS) Entomophthorales Integrated pest management (IPM) Microbial control Phytobiome Sporulation Tetranychidae
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Neozygites floridana is a pathogenic fungus and natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), which is an important polyphagous plant pest. The aim of this study was to reveal and predict what combination of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and time that enables and promotes primary conidia production and capilliconidia formation in N. floridana (Brazilian isolate ESALQ 1420), in both a detached leaf assay mimicking climatic conditions in the leaf boundary layer and in a semi-field experiment. In the detached leaf assay, a significant number of conidia were produced at 90% RH but the highest total number of primary conidia and proportion of capilliconidia was found at 95 and 100% RH at 25◦C. Positive temperature and RH effects were observed and conidia production was highest in the 8 to 12 h interval. The semi-field experiment showed that for a >90% probability of N. floridana sporulation, a minimum of 6 h with RH >90% and 10 h with temperatures >21◦C, or 6 h with temperatures >21◦C and 15 h with RH >90% was needed. Our study identified suitable conditions for primary-and capilliconidia production in this Brazilian N. floridana isolate. This information provides an important base for building models of a Decision Support System (DSS) where this natural enemy may be used as a tool in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and a base for developing in vivo production systems of N. floridana.
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