© The Author(s) 2017. As education systems place increasing emphasis on accountability, it is timely to assess the factors that contribute to student retention in higher education. This chapter examines how Irish HEIs compare in their student retention patterns and if this changes when compared on a like-for-like basis, taking account of student characteristics such as prior academic performance. The results show that wide institutional differences in retention to a large extent reflect differences in the types of students enrolling in different colleges. However, some colleges with more disadvantaged intakes fare better, all else being equal, pointing to the role of academic supports, teaching and learning approaches, as well as student engagement in college life in promoting success.