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Bruni D;Dignam A;Dunne S;Wall-Coughlan D;McCrudden A;O'Connell K;Lyons C;McGuigan C;Tubridy N;Butler MP;
Journal of Immunology
IRAK1 Limits TLR3/4- and IFNAR-Driven IL-27 Production through a STAT1-Dependent Mechanism.
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IL-27 is a cytokine exerting pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects on a broad spectrum of immune cells. Optimal IL-27 production downstream of TLR3/4 ligand stimulation relies on autocrine type I IFN signaling, defining a first and second phase in IL-27 production. This work shows that IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) limits TLR3/4- and IFNAR-induced IL-27 production. At the mechanistic level, we identified IRAK1 as a novel regulator of STAT1, IRF1, and IRF9. We found hyperactivation of STAT1 together with increased nuclear levels of IRF1 and IRF9 in IRAK1-deficient murine macrophages compared with control cells following stimulation with LPS and poly(I:C). IRAK1-deficient human microglial cells showed higher basal levels of STAT1 and STAT2 compared with control cells. Blocking the kinase activity of TBK1/IKKε in IRAK1 knockdown human microglial cells reduced the high basal levels of STAT1/2, uncovering a TBK1/IKKε kinase-dependent mechanism controlling basal levels of STAT1/2. Stimulating IRAK1 knockdown human microglial cells with IFN-β led to increased IL-27p28 expression compared with control cells. In IRAK1-deficient murine macrophages, increased IL-27 levels were detected by ELISA following IFN-β stimulation compared with control macrophages together with increased nuclear levels of p-STAT1, IRF1, and IRF9. Treatment of wild-type and IRAK1-deficient murine macrophages with fludarabine similarly reduced TLR3/4-induced IL-27 cytokine levels. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report placing IRAK1 in the IFNAR pathway and identifies IRAK1 as an important regulator of STAT1, controlling IL-27 production downstream of TLR3/4 and IFNAR signaling pathways.
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