In preparation for ICD-11, the adjustment disorder (AjD) diagnosis has undergone considerable revisions; however, the latent structure of AjD remains uncertain. It is unclear whether AjD is best represented as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. This study performed a comprehensive assessment of the latent structure of AjD symptomatology and assessed its concurrent and discriminant validity. Individuals who experienced involuntary job loss (N = 333) completed a self-report measure of AjD symptoms. Seven alternative models of AjD were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. General psychological distress, impairment in social functioning, occupational self-efficacy, and sense of coherence were used as criterion variables for construct validity. In the confirmatory factor analysis, a bifactor solution with one dominant general AjD factor and 5 correlated group factors (preoccupation, failure-to-adapt, avoidance, affective reaction, and impulsivity) provided optimal fit. As expected, the AjD factor showed strong positive associations with general psychological distress and impairments in social functioning and moderately negative associations with occupational self-efficacy and sense of coherence. With regard to unidimensionality or multidimensionality of AjD symptoms, the current results indicate the plausibility of a unidimensional conceptualization. Future research should focus on essential key characteristics and a reduction of symptoms for the AjD definition.