Understanding human development requires consideration of intricate, multi-faceted networks of factors affecting physical, socio-emotional and cognitive outcomes across the lifespan. Human-beings learn and develop in the midst of society, and the ordinary spaces, places and people we encounter have profound influence on us (Hayes, 2013). One of the earliest pioneering accounts of ecologies of learning was provided by Urie Bronfenbrenner, Professor of Psychology and Human Development at Cornell University and co-founder of the National Headstart Programme in the US. This chapter considers Bronfenbrenner’s evolving theorisation, foregrounding the interplay between the biological and ecological elements within a learning system and explaining the relevance for contemporary educational and pedagogical practices. In turn, it animates Bronfenbrenner’s theories by reference to real-life processes of education.