Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Ashley AE;Herrington TJ;Wildgoose GG;Zaher H;Thompson AL;Rees NH;Krämer T;O'Hare D;
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Separating electrophilicity and Lewis acidity: the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemistry of the electron deficient tris(aryl)boranes B(C6F5)(3-n)(C6Cl5)n (n = 1-3).
79 ()
Optional Fields
A new family of electron-deficient tris(aryl)boranes, B(C(6)F(5))(3-n)(C(6)Cl(5))(n) (n = 1-3), has been synthesized, permitting an investigation into the steric and electronic effects resulting from the gradual replacement of C(6)F(5) with C(6)Cl(5) ligands. B(C(6)F(5))(2)(C(6)Cl(5)) (3) is accessed via C(6)Cl(5)BBr(2), itself prepared from donor-free Zn(C(6)Cl(5))(2) and BBr(3). Reaction of C(6)Cl(5)Li with BCl(3) in a Et(2)O/hexane slurry selectively produced B(C(6)Cl(5))(2)Cl, which undergoes B-Cl exchange with CuC(6)F(5) to afford B(C(6)F(5))(C(6)Cl(5))(2) (5). While 3 forms a complex with H(2)O, which can be rapidly removed under vacuum or in the presence of molecular sieves, B(C(6)Cl(5))(3) (6) is completely stable to refluxing toluene/H(2)O for several days. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 have been structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction and represent the first structure determinations for compounds featuring B-C(6)Cl(5) bonds; each exhibits a trigonal planar geometry about B, despite having different ligand sets. The spectroscopic characterization using (11)B, (19)F, and (13)C NMR indicates that the boron center becomes more electron-deficient as n increases. Optimized structures of B(C(6)F(5))(3-n)(C(6)Cl(5))(n) (n = 0-3) using density functional theory (B3LYP/TZVP) are all fully consistent with the experimental structural data. Computed (11)B shielding constants also replicate the experimental trend almost quantitatively, and the computed natural charges on the boron center increase in the order n = 0 (0.81) < n = 1 (0.89) < n = 2 (1.02) < n = 3 (1.16), supporting the hypothesis that electrophilicity increases concomitantly with substitution of C(6)F(5) for C(6)Cl(5). The direct solution cyclic voltammetry of B(C(6)F(5))(3) has been obtained for the first time and electrochemical measurements upon the entire series B(C(6)F(5))(3-n)(C(6)Cl(5))(n) (n = 0-3) corroborate the spectroscopic data, revealing C(6)Cl(5) to be a more electron-withdrawing group than C(6)F(5), with a ca. +200 mV shift observed in the reduction potential per C(6)F(5) group replaced. Conversely, use of the Guttmann-Beckett and Childs' methods to determine Lewis acidity on B(C(6)F(5))(3), 3, and 5 showed this property to diminish with increasing C(6)Cl(5) content, which is attributed to the steric effects of the bulky C(6)Cl(5) substituents. This conflict is ascribed to the minimal structural reorganization in the radical anions upon reduction during cyclic voltammetric experiments. Reduction of 6 using Na((s)) in THF results in a vivid blue paramagnetic solution of Na(+) [6](•-); the EPR signal of Na(+)[6](•-) is centered at g = 2.002 with a((11)B) 10G. Measurements of the exponential decay of the EPR signal (298 K) reveal [6](•-) to be considerably more stable than its perfluoro analogue.
Grant Details