There is a continuing rise in the occurrence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance to currently available antibiotics has become a global health issue leading to an urgent need for alternative antibacterial strategies. There has been a renewed interest in the development of antibacterial agents from natural sources, and trans-cinnamaldehyde is an example of a naturally occurring compound that has received significant attention in recent years. Trans-Cinnamaldehyde has been shown to possess substantial antimicrobial activity, as well as an array of other medicinal properties, and represents an intriguing hit compound from which a number of derivatives have been developed. In some cases, these derivatives have been shown to possess improved activity, not only compared to trans-cinnamaldehyde but also to commonly used antibiotics. Therefore, understanding the antibacterial mechanisms of action that these compounds elicit is imperative in order to facilitate their development and the development of new antibacterial agents that could exploit similar mechanistic approaches. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the antibacterial activity and mechanisms of action of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives, and to highlight significant contributions made in this research area. It is hoped that the findings presented in this work will aid the future development of new antibacterial agents.