Vital Geographies comprise the geographical study of the causes and consequences of longevity and health. Vital geographies are re-drawn by major transformations in the relations between people and space, such as are at the heart of the urbanization, proletarianization, colonialism, and the foundational transition to agriculture. These transformations currently interact under the structuring framework of capitalist relations of production. In this way vital geographies combine the perspectives of Political Economy and of Political Ecology, giving us a way to address some of the dilemmas of the current changes in global environmental systems. Vital geographies shift our attention as human geographers away from issues of wealth and towards matters of health and longevity. In doing so, we emplace our economic and social geographies within the web of life and bring the central concerns of biogeography into human geography, and vice versa.