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Eitle MW;Carolan JC;Griesser M;Forneck A;
The salivary gland proteome of root-galling grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) feeding on Vitis spp.
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The successful parasitisation of a plant by a phytophagous insect is dependent on the delivery of effector molecules into the host. Sedentary gall forming insects, such as grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, Phylloxeridae), secrete multiple effectors into host plant tissues that alter or modulate the cellular and molecular environment to the benefit of the insect. The identification and characterisation of effector proteins will provide insight into the host-phylloxera interaction specifically the gall-induction processes and potential mechanisms of plant resistance. Using proteomic mass spectrometry and in-silico secretory prediction, 420 putative effectors were determined from the salivary glands or the root-feeding D. vitifoliae larvae reared on Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri x V. riparia). Among them, 170 conserved effectors were shared between D. vitifoliae and fourteen phytophagous insect species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of five conserved effector candidates (protein disulfide-isomerase, peroxidoredoxin, peroxidase and a carboxypeptidase) revealed that their gene expression decreased, when larvae were starved for 24 h, supporting their assignment as effector molecules. The D. vitifoliae effectors identified here represent a functionally diverse group, comprising both conserved and unique proteins that provide new insight into the D. vitifoliae-Vitis spp. interaction and the potential mechanisms by which D. vitifoliae establishes the feeding site, suppresses plant defences and modulates nutrient uptake.
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