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O'Connor E;Coates CJ;Eastwood DC;Fitzpatrick DA;Grogan H;
Journal of Microbiological Methods
FISHing in fungi: Visualisation of mushroom virus X in the mycelium of Agaricus bisporus by fluorescence in situ hybridisation.
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Agaricus bisporus is a commercial mushroom crop susceptible to a disease caused by a complex of viruses known collectively as mushroom virus X (MVX). Symptoms of MVX include bare patches and mushroom cap discolouration (browning) in the fruiting bodies, phenotypes associated with the viruses AbV6 and AbV16, respectively. Limited understanding exists of the localisation and mobilisation of these viruses within the mycelium of A. bisporus. To this end, a non-destructive fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) method was developed for in situ targeting of AbV6 and AbV16 in A. bisporus mycelium. An MVX strain associated with the bare patch disease phenotype revealed predominantly high signal towards the growing edges of cultures when probed for AbV6, with a 'halo-effect' of high signal intensity around putative vacuoles. An MVX strain associated with the browning disease phenotype showed high signal intensities within reticulating networks of hyphae in a highly compartmentalised manner when probed for AbV16. Localisation of the two viruses in MVX-infected cultures appears independent, as both viruses were found in completely discrete areas of the mycelium in differential patterns. FISH detected low level presence of the two viruses, AbV6 and AbV16 in a number of cultures which had tested negative for the viruses by RT-PCR. This suggests that FISH may be more sensitive at detecting viruses at low levels than molecular methods. This study demonstrates that FISH is a powerful tool in the field of mycovirology.
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