Whole-body endurance events present unique and often unexpected challenges. Effective pace-regulation, and the ability to manage discomfort during endurance activity are examples of self-regulated behavior. Self-regulation is considered a fundamental aspect of goal-directed endurance performance. This chapter provides an understanding of self-regulation as applied to endurance performance. First, it presents a broad overview of self-regulation in an endurance activity context, drawing on Brick and colleagues' metacognitive framework of attentional focus and cognitive control to highlight cognitive and metacognitive processes important to self-regulated action. Second, the chapter considers the role of emotion regulation during endurance performance. Specifically, the authors apply the process model of emotion regulation to an applied context and consider how athletes can control stressors experienced during endurance activity. Finally, the chapter proposes numerous models to account for the mechanisms underpinning self-regulation and endurance performance. In an attempt to overcome the often-dichotomised debates surrounding these mechanisms, the chapter presents an overview of a recently developed, three-dimensional framework that emphasises the distinct contributions of sensory, cognitive, and affective determinants of goal-directed exercise behaviour.